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国家发改委、国家能源局:打好煤电去产能“组合拳” [复制链接]

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为打好化解煤电产能过剩攻坚战,国家发展改革委、国家能源局4月21日联合密集下发3个文件,内容涵盖了煤电项目的规划、核准、建设、淘汰落后产能等多个环节,以督促各地方政府和企业放缓燃煤火电建设步伐。专家表示,这一套“组合拳”旨在防范煤电行业产能过剩的潜在风险。
煤电产能过剩风险凸显
     近年来,全国用电量增速逐年放缓,火电利用小时数逐年降低。2013年为5021小时,2014年为4739小时,2015年仅为4329小时,同比下降410小时。同时,煤电项目从纳入国家发展规划到建成投产需3至4年时间,存在一定惯性,导致近期煤电投产规模并未减少。
    “在‘十三五’电力规划编制过程中,部分地区和发电企业发展煤电的积极性很高,未来几年规划建设的煤电项目仍然很多。”国家能源局电力司司长韩水表示,对此,国家要求及时出台政策,化解煤电行业潜在的产能过剩风险。
  国家能源局发布的最新数据显示,截至3月末,全国6000千瓦及以上电厂火电装机容量10.1亿千瓦,一季度火电设备平均利用小时1006小时,比上年同期降低108小时。与上年同期相比,共有25个省份火电利用小时同比下降。
  发电设备平均利用小时数是发电厂发电设备利用程度的指标。按照电力行业的一般规则,如果某一地区的全年设备利用小时数高于5500小时,表明该地区用电紧张,可继续增加电源投资。如果低于4500小时,则表明该地区电力富余,一般不能再新增发电装机。以5500小时的火电盈亏平衡点测算,过剩程度已经超过20%。
  两部门紧急下发《关于促进我国煤电有序发展的通知》等3个文件。“结合我国经济发展形势、煤电规划建设现状以及各地电力供需情况,我们对‘十三五’期间的煤电发展空间进行了测算,对促进煤电有序发展的措施进行完善,并分析了措施执行后的效果。”韩水说。
  从去年起,我国用电增速大幅放缓,煤电规划建设规模远大于用电需求,建立煤电风险预警机制迫在眉睫。
  风险预警指标包括建设经济性指标、装机充裕度指标和资源约束指标3个指标,分红、橙、绿三个等级进行预警。红色预警,地方政府应暂缓核准煤电项目,企业慎重决策项目开工,在建项目要合理安排建设投产时序。橙色预警,地方政府和企业应慎重决策建设煤电项目。预警机制按年发布,目标为发布年后的第3年。今年发布2019年预警,预警结果显示,全国有26个省(区、市)的预警程度为最严峻的红色。
  记者发现,本次下发的3个文件对新增煤电规划建设提出了更加严格的要求:一是将对重点区域的要求扩展到全国电力盈余地区;二是将等煤量替代建设项目进一步严格规定为等容量替代;三是要合理安排煤电基地规划建设时序,减轻受端省份接受外来电力的压力。
  “十二五”以来,国家继续加强火电行业淘汰落后产能工作力度,累计淘汰能耗高、污染重的火电机组约2800万千瓦,超额完成“十二五”2000万千瓦的目标,电力行业结构调整取得显著成效。
  韩水表示,抓住当前电力供需形势较为宽松的有利时机,加快淘汰煤电行业落后产能,对于保障我国能源安全、促进生态文明建设具有重要意义。
  此次,煤电机组的关停标准增加了淘汰不符合能效限额标准、不符合国家环保要求且不实施改造的机组等条款。机组关停后可进行发电权交易,实行等容量替代新建煤电项目等政策。同时还将加强对政策措施执行情况的监管。
  此外,国家能源局还将采取其他措施,逐步化解煤电行业潜在过剩风险。一是研究实施节能低碳调度,提升高效清洁机组的负荷率和运行水平;二是加强煤电机组调峰能力建设,深入挖掘煤电机组调峰潜力;三是积极推进“电能替代”,扩大电能占终端能源消费比重。
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The Guyana Teachers’ Union (GTU) has withdrawn its support and signature from the interviewing process being conducted by the Teaching Service Commission (TSC) which is processing senior teachers.The GTU is of the view that the interviews being conducted by members from the TSC are biased. It has since requested from the TSC that members of the GTU and the Education Ministry be part of the team that scores the points during the interview. According to president of the union, Colwyn King, the TSC has bluntly refused to do so.King explained that, although some of the interviews were good, the way they were conducted left much to be desired,Cheap Soccer Jerseys China, as over the years a number of infringements were committed against persons for various reasons. He added that the interviews were very subjective.“I don’t want to belittle those from the TSC, but there are some of that age that don’t permit them to perform the way they ought to. Some memories,Mousa Dembele Jersey UK, some movement and age sometimes carry with it some infringement,” King said.It was noted that when the GTU put forward its request to have other members be part of the scoring team the TSC said that no interviews would be done if that is the case.Based on this, GTU has withdrawn its support for the interviews, and recognises that if the union does this, the subjectivity of the interviews would maintain.“I don’t understand that in a modern education system and in a place where democracy and openness prevail… these are the things that exist… and we don’t want to support things that would infringe the education system and stand inhibiting where progress lies.”King added that it is not the role or responsibility of the TSC to be the sole members to score the points. He explained that during a meeting, which was held last Monday between the TSC, GTU and the Minister of Education, all these points were made, but the Minister sided with the TSC.According to the union president, the GTU and the Ministry of Education have a professional body, where the GTU and the Ministry create the policies and set the criteria for appointment of head-teachers,Dale Hunter Capitals Jersey, deputy head-teachers and heads of department,California Golden Bears Jerseys, while the TSC is responsible of securing those policies.However,Benoit Costil Jersey, now the situation has changed, the TSC wants to create its own policies. He added that in 2006 it was said that no teacher should be in a classroom if he or she is not trained, but this never materialised, due to the extent of teacher migration in the country. It was also found that Region Two was not sending any teachers to the University of Guyana. Those who wanted to attend UG had to leave their jobs.The criteria then stated that teachers of grade A and B schools must be graduates, but the TSC is pushing for a one off,Adrian Ortola Jersey, where this year the Commission wants to lower the standards to accommodate those teachers in Region Two. The GTU does not agree with this.“The GTU has stood strong that the rules are the rules and should not be tampered with, and in tampering with the rules we would be lowering educational standards.”
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