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GB/T14000—ISO14000系列标准的概念 [复制链接]

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ISO14000主要由环境方针、规划、实施与运行、检查与纠正措施、管理评审五大要素组成,每个大要素又可分成若干个小要素,构成建立环境管理体系的基本要求。ISO14000系列标准是通用的,既可以应用于制造业,也可用于服务业;既可用于公共部门,也可用于私营部门。它本身并没有规定环境保护的水平,而是指出了环境管理体系的要求。

ISO14000系列标准背景介绍

近代工业的发展过程中,由于人类过度追求经济增长速度而忽略环境的重要性,导致水土流失、土地沙漠化、水体污染、空气质量下降、全球气候反常、臭氧层耗竭、生态环境严重破坏 …… 环境问题已成为制约经济发展和人类生存的重要因素。

各国政府非常重视环境问题,纷纷制订环境标准,各项标准日趋严格,出口商品因不符合标准而蒙受巨大经济损失。环境问题已成为绿色贸易壁垒,成为企业生存和发展必须关注的问题。

考虑到零散的、被动适应法规要求的环境管理机制不足以确保一个组织的环境行为不仅现在满足,将来也一直能满足法律和方针所提出的要求,企业没有持续改进的动力,国际标准化组织(ISO)在汲取世界发达国家多年环境管理经验的基础上制定并颁布了ISO14000环境管理系列标准。

ISO14000环境管理系列标准已成为一套目前世界上最全面和最系统的环境管理国际化标准,并引起世界各国政府、企业界的普遍重视和积极响应。

ISO14000环境管理系列标准

ISO14001:2004 《环境管理体系-规范与使用指南》

ISO14010:1996 《环境审核指南-通用原则》

ISO14011:1996 《环境审核指南-审核程序-环境管理体系审核》

ISO14012:1996 《环境审核指南-环境审核员资格要求》

ISO14020:1998 《环境标志和声明-通用原则》

ISO14040:1997 《生命周期分析-原则和指南》

ISO14041:1998 《生命周期分析-目标和范围界定 清单分析》

ISO14050:1998 《环境管理词汇》

ISO导则64:1997 《产品标准中环境因素导则》

其中,组织依据ISO14001:2004《环境管理体系-规范与使用指南》建立环境管理体系(EMS),并通过第三方认证机构的认证已经成为打破国际绿色壁垒、进入欧美市场的准入证,并逐渐成为组织进行生产、经营活动及贸易往来的必备条件之一。

ISO14000特点

注重体系的完整性,是一套科学的环境管理软件

强调对法律法规的符合性,但对环境行为不作具体规定

要求对组织的活动进行全过程控制

广泛适用于各类组织

与ISO9000标准有很强的兼容性

ISO14000带给企业的效益

获取国际贸易的"绿色通行证"

增强企业竞争力,扩大市场份额

树立优秀企业形象

改进产品性能,制造"绿色产品"

改革工艺设备,实现节能降耗

污染预防,环境保护

避免因环境问题所造成的经济损失

提高员工环保素质

提高企业内部管理水平

减少环境风险,实现企业永续经营

认证基本要求

(1).组织应建立符合ISO14000标准要求的文件化环境管理体系,在申请认证之前应完成内部审核和管理评审,并保证环境管理体系的有效、充分运行三个月以上;

(2).组织应向世通认证提供环境管理体系运行的充分信息,对于多现场应说明各现场的认证范围、地址及人员分布等情况,世通认证将以抽样的方式对多现场进行审核;

(3).组织自建立环境管理体系始,应保持对法律法规符合性的自我评价,并提交组织的三废监测报告及一年以来的守法证明。在不符合相关法律法规要求时应及时采取必要的纠正措施;

(4).ISO14000审核是一项收集客观证据的符合性验证活动,为使审核顺利进行,组织应为世通认证开展认证审核、跟踪审核、监督审核、复审换证以及解决投诉等活动做出必要的安排,包括文件审核、现场审核、调阅相关记录和访问人员等各个方面;

(5).组织获证后,应遵守世通认证的有关要求,在进行宣传时应仅就获准认证的范围作出申明,并遵守世通认证有关认证证书及认证标志使用规定;在监督审核时世通认证将对认证证书及标志的使用情况进行审核;

(6).当组织的环境管理体系出现变化,或出现影响环境管理体系符合性的重大变动时,应及时通知世通认证;世通认证将视情况进行监督审核、换证审核或复审以保持证书的有效性;

(7). 组织应向世通认证提供有关与相关方信息沟通和投诉的记录,以及采取纠正措施的记录。

ISO14000与ISO9000的异同点

ISO14000与ISO9000既有共同点,又有很大区别。

1.ISO14000与ISO9000具有共同的实施对象:在各类组织建立科学、规范和程序化的管理系统。

2.两套标准的管理体系相似:ISO14000某些标准的框架、结构和内容参考了ISO9000中某些标准规定的框架、结构和内容。

ISO14000与ISO9000在内涵和承诺对象上不同,主要表现在:

1.承诺对象不同:ISO9000标准的承诺对象是产品的使用者、消费者,它是按不同消费者的需要,以合同形式进行体现的。而ISO14000 系列标准则是向相关方的承诺,受益者将是全社会,是人类的生存环境和人类自身的共同需要,这无法通过合同体现,只能通过利益相关方,其中主要是政府来代表社会的需要,用法律、法规来体现,所以ISO14000的最低要求是达到政府的环境法律、法规与其他要求。

2.承诺的内容不同:ISO9000系列标准是保证产品的质量;而ISO14000系列标准则要求组织承诺遵守环境法律、法规及其他要求,并对污染预防和持续改进作出承诺。

3.体系的构成模式不同:ISO9000的质量管理模式是封闭的,而环境管理体系则是螺旋上升的开环模式。要求体系不断地有所改进和提高。

4.审核认证的依据不同:ISO9000标准是质量管理体系认证的根本依据;而环境管理体系认证除符合ISO14001外,还必须结合本国的环境法律、法规及相关标准,如果组织的环境行为不能满足国家要求,则难以通过体系的认证。

5.对审核人员资格的要求不同:ISO14000系列标准涉及的是环境问题,面对的是如何按照本国的环境、法规、标准等要求保护生态环境,污染防治和处理的具体环境问题,故环境管理体系对组织有目标、指标的要求,因而从事ISO14000认证工作的人员必须具备相应的环境知识和环境管理经验,否则难以对现场存在的环境问题做出正确判断。
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