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国内外光伏全生命周期评价(LCA)研究成果分享 [复制链接]

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 来自IEAPVPSTask12美国、瑞士等代表介绍了光伏全生命周期评价(LCA)的计算方法进行了介绍,指出:不同地域下LCA计算所需的边界及条件差异很大,导致结果可比性差;为提高计算结果的一致性、平衡性及质量,需建立统一的LCA评价方法,尤其是边界条件的选择。美国能源实验室(NREL)专家对比分析2000多份文献资料,比较了不同研究结果的差异,试图通过综合协调研究法实现技术的同归、边界的统一、太阳能分布资源的统一等,实现一个可供决策使用的更具有意义的LCA计算结果。


  来自中国科研单位的专家从生命周期标准化定量分析出发,根据现有技术水平计算我国多晶硅光伏发电能量回收期约为1.63年,每使用1m2光伏发电替代火电发电,在CO2减排方面相当于每年种了2棵树,在应对PM2.5的减排方面相当于每年少开车2万km;另外,还根据中国现有光伏制造及发电水平,结合中国电力结构,计算了我国晶体硅光伏并网光伏发电系统全生命周期CO2排放量为:分布式光伏发电约50g/kwh,集中式光伏发电约40g/kwh。(计算参考我国电网的CO2排放量约为1030gco2/kwh)

来源:山东蓬莱市经济和信息化局

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Kaepernick went 18 for 33 for 174 yards with a touchdown and two interceptions. The five sacks gave him a league-high 43 this year.
Kaepernick threw an interception on the first play, and found himself on his backside following a fifth sack when it finally ended with the Raiders (2-11) celebrating on their home field a week after a 52-0 loss at St. Louis.
NOTES: CB Chris Culliver injured his left knee when he went down with 11:03 left in the second quarter, but said afterward he was OK. Culliver missed the 2013 season because of a torn ACL in the same knee. ... San Francisco LG Mike Iupati injured an elbow and rookie C Marcus Martin injured his right knee when Kaepernick was sacked with 5:20 left.
The 49ers surrendered the first back-to-back touchdown drives for the Raiders all season.

"I don't think we overlooked this team," tight end Vernon Davis said.
Carr rarely faced any pressure, giving him plenty of time to find open receivers downfield. He hit Mychal Rivera down the middle for a 27-yard gain and completed all five of his passes for 73 yards on the go-ahead drive.
Rookie Derek Carr produced one of his best performances and completely outclassed Kaepernick, who said a cameraman got too close to his face at halftime and, "If I put something real close to your face you're going to try to move out of the way, too."
A defense that has carried San Francisco in recent weeks when the offense couldn't find a groove showed its flaws against the NFL's biggest loser.
49ers outside linebacker Ahmad Brooks was benched for missing a defensive meeting Tuesday morning, though he made it to a domestic violence meeting an hour later. He said he wasn't told he wouldn't start or not play at all.
"I'm giving everything I have every time I step on the field," succinct-as-ever Kaepernick said. "I have to play better. I haven't played well."
These Niners (7-6) hardly look like a team that entered the season with the swagger of a franchise that has reached three straight NFC championship games and had a Super Bowl-or-bust mentality for 2014. That "Who's got it better than us,Wholesale NFL Jerseys? No-body!" has quickly turned to a mantra of playing to stave off elimination each week.
"My priorities are No. 1 winning football games, No. 2, with the welfare of our players, coaches and our staff, and lastly is what my personal and professional future is," said Harbaugh, who was later asked if he even wanted to be back, "My priorities are winning games."
"They have their plan of what they want to do and all I can do as a player is just abide by the rules," he said. "No, I do not agree. I'm just a player, I'm just a number."
They're not doing it.
"They were able to go out there and take advantage of the mistakes we made. He did a good job of getting the ball out and using his protection," linebacker Aldon Smith said. "I don't know if shock's the word I'm going to use. We're a competitive team, we're a good team and every week we go out I expect for us to win. So I wasn't expecting the result."
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Harbaugh sparked further chatter about where he might wind up next season when he walked out of the tunnel and straight to Raiders owner Mark Davis for a quick chat,Cheap NFL Jerseys. Harbaugh worked as an offensive assistant with the Raiders in 2002-03 under late owner Al Davis,holesale NFL Jerseys.
Phil Dawson's 20-yard field goal midway through the third gave the 49ers a brief lead. But he missed wide left from 47 yards with about five minutes left and had an earlier 54-yarder negated by a holding penalty.
Colin Kaepernick followed one of his worst outings as a pro with another surprising flop, and Jim Harbaugh's 49ers were stunned by the Oakland Raiders franchise that gave him his coaching start in a 24-13 defeat Sunday.
Now, will the Raiders give him his next job?
Offensive lineman Donald Penn even got into the action for Oakland,Wholesale Jerseys USA, catching a 3-yard TD pass from Carr. It was the 330-pound offensive lineman's third career touchdown and second against San Francisco.
From dominant to dumbfounded.
Carr threw three touchdown passes, including a 9-yarder to Marcel Reece late in the third quarter that gave the Raiders the lead for good. The Raiders and 49ers renewed their rivalry at the Coliseum for the first time since 2002.
OAKLAND, Calif. (AP) — The San Francisco 49ers are playing themselves right out of the playoff picture.
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