发新话题 回复该主题

如何计算碳排放才能更准确? [复制链接]

1#
[p=20, null, left]导读: 来自联合国环境署、国内外政府机构、行业组织、企业、研究机构、认证机构的100多位与会者介绍了中国、欧盟、法国、泰国等国内外生命周期评价政策,并探讨了相关政策对各行业和企业的影响。这套用来评价产品“从摇篮到坟墓”的环境管理和分析方法,在我国的推广情况如何?我们能够通过它,向低碳社会迈进一步吗?[/p]




[p=24, null, left]  OFweek节能网讯 从原料开采到产品加工、使用与报废,一件工业产品消耗了多少能源?产品生产的各道工序还有哪些环保潜力可挖?生产同样的产品,国内企业与国外企业的消耗及环保差距究竟有多大?如何能让传统行业在低碳时代转型发展,寻找到一条“低碳路线”?一套叫做产品生命周期评价的方法,能够回答这些问题。[/p][p=24, null, left]  3月6日和7日,生命周期评价国际研讨会举行。来自联合国环境署、国内外政府机构、行业组织、企业、研究机构、认证机构的100多位与会者介绍了中国、欧盟、法国、泰国等国内外生命周期评价政策,并探讨了相关政策对各行业和企业的影响。这套用来评价产品“从摇篮到坟墓”的环境管理和分析方法,在我国的推广情况如何?我们能够通过它,向低碳社会迈进一步吗?[/p][p=24, null, left]  国际市场环保要求的新基础[/p][p=24, null, left]  笔者:说到碳排放大家都不陌生,但是生命周期评价,是一个比较新的概念。生命周期评价方法是一种什么方法呢?[/p][p=24, null, left]  王洪涛:产品生命周期是指产品生产和使用的全过程,从资源开采开始、到产品废弃结束。生命周期评价(Life Cycle Assessment,LCA)是评价产品生命周期全过程中资源环境影响的国际标准方法,即ISO14040系列标准,并且十多年前就已等同转化为中国国家标准,即GB24040系列标准。[/p][p=24, null, left]  LCA的首要特点是系统全面,其评价范围可以涵盖产品生命周期各个阶段、涵盖多种资源环境问题,从而避免片面的结论;其次,LCA完全采用客观量化的评价指标,避免评价中的主观随意性。[/p][p=24, null, left]  笔者:在哪些地方可以应用这套方法呢?[/p][p=24, null, left]  王洪涛:尽管LCA是作为一种理论方法在20年前提出的,但企业一直是应用和推动LCA方法发展的主体。一方面,LCA是展示产品资源环境表现的标准做法。例如近年来国际市场上非常流行的产品碳足迹、产品水足迹就是完全基于LCA标准的。另一方面,LCA也是改进产品资源环境效率的分析工具,已成为制订产品和技术发展战略、规避潜在环境风险的重要工具。[/p][p=24, null, left]  目前而言有5类企业采用LCA方法比较普遍。首先是行业领先企业。这类企业关注可持续发展和差异化,而资源环境保护和企业社会责任正是一个长期的发展主题。其次是竞争性企业为缩小与行业领先企业的差距,也必须具备这方面的基本能力。第三是出口型行业和企业,必须满足国际市场上采购方的要求,越来越普遍地需要提交各种产品LCA报告。第四是提供绿色产品或清洁技术的企业。第五是高能耗高污染的企业,需要系统分析各种改进途径。[/p][p=24, null, left]  笔者:这样计算对于企业来说是否必须?我们知道在贸易层面有碳排放的要求。这样一套方法在国际上都有哪些政策支持呢?[/p][p=24, null, left]  王洪涛:最重要的是2013年4月欧盟出台了“建立绿色产品统一市场”政策,未来欧盟市场将采用统一的绿色产品评价方法,称为产品环境足迹(PEF)评价方法,这是完全基于LCA方法的。欧盟建议在成员国相关立法以及产品环境标志、产品生态设计、绿色采购、绿色金融等体系中采用上述方法。这标志着,在欧盟的环保政策中,LCA已经完成了从“最佳方法”到“唯一方法”的转变。[/p][p=24, null, left]  以出口为导向的发达国家,如日本、澳大利亚、德国、法国、加拿大、美国等出口较多的新兴经济体国家,都早已认识到LCA在国际贸易中的重要性,已经开展了长期的LCA基础工作,印度、土耳其、俄罗斯等国的LCA工作也正在启动。未来,LCA方法还可能借助欧盟PEF政策,蔓延到更多国家和市场,就如欧盟RoHS、REACH环保指令一样。[/p][p=24, null, left]  资源环境保护将是市场竞争中持久的主题。近年的发展趋势显示,产品LCA评价将是未来国际市场环保要求的方法基础。[/p]
分享 转发
TOP
2#

回复 1楼zzaazcy的帖子

 国际方法并不适用于我国
  笔者:目前国际上通用的计算碳排放周期的方法是什么?是否适用于我国呢?
  王洪涛:国内面临非常严峻的资源环境约束,因此也制订了非常严格的节能减排约束性目标,因此LCA在中国的应用有更明确的目的——为更有效实现节能减排约束性目标提供新方法、新机制。
  在“十一五”和“十二五”的《国民经济与社会发展规划纲要》中,先后提出了多项具体而量化的全国节能减排约束性目标,包括降低能耗和工业水耗、减少CO2、SO2、COD、氮氧化物和氨氮排放等。这些消耗与排放当然是由国内产品生产与消费活动直接造成的,这些目标也必然通过产品生命周期的改进而实现。这是所有在中国运营企业应当承担的社会责任,也是未来必将面对的长期挑战。
  而且,随着节能减排工作的延续和深入,持续大幅度改进的难度会越来越大,必然需要发动全社会更多行业、更多决策者共同参与,必然需要提出和实施更多改进方案,因此必然需要科学、统一、量化的评价方法,不应继续采用主观、片面、各行其是的评价体系,避免各种“节能减排措施”的效果相互抵消。
  为此,四川大学和清华大学等研究单位已提出了生命周期节能减排评价方法与指标体系(ECER),涵盖产品生命周期多个过程、包含上述多项节能减排约束性指标,评价过程基本避免了人为主观意见,最终得出量化的单一综合指标和明确的评价结论,适用于各种产品和方案措施的节能减排效果评价。
  ECER指标意味着可以将节能减排宏观政策目标落实到每一个企业、每一种产品、每一次具体决策中,企业和决策者可以在日常工作中进行评估和选择,从而最大程度协调和发挥出全社会、各行业的创新能力与改进潜力。同时,生命周期方法也意味着可以基于市场机制,发挥产业链上下游企业之间的带动作用,而不是单纯依靠行政命令。这是对现行节能减排评价方法和落实机制的重要补充,有利于更有效地实现节能减排约束性目标。
  助力绿色产品升级 提升国际竞争力
  笔者:我们国家为什么要在中国推广应用LCA?其目的和意义是什么?
  王洪涛:简单地讲,中国LCA研究与应用可以服务于两个领域的可持续发展目标:在市场、尤其是国际市场上,帮助企业和行业实现产品、技术与管理的绿色改进和升级,维护中国制造产品的国际竞争力;在国内政策领域,可以为实现节能减排约束性指标提供直接的支持,并服务于中国“两型社会”、生态文明、循环经济、低碳经济等宏观政策目标。
  笔者:LCA在国内有哪些政策支持呢?
  王洪涛:最近两年国内多个政府部门不约而同地出台了多项与LCA相关的政策文件。在技术评价领域,2012年9月,国家工信部、科技部、财政部,联合发布了《关于加强工业节能减排先进适用技术遴选、评估与推广工作的通知》,“鼓励采用多属性综合评估、生命周期评价、成本效益分析和专家辅助综合评估等定量化技术评估工具,提高评估过程的科学性和评估结果的客观性”。
  在产品生态设计领域,2013年1月,国家工信部、发改委、环保部,联合发布了《关于开展工业产品生态设计的指导意见》,指出“生态设计是按照全生命周期的理念,……力求产品在全生命周期中最大限度降低资源消耗、……减少污染物产生和排放”,并建议“逐步建立产品生态设计基础数据库;试行产品生命周期评价”。工信部即将在全国多个行业开展“生态设计示范企业创建”工作,将进一步推动中国企业在实际工作中应用LCA工具。
TOP
3#

回复 0楼zzaazcy的帖子

 打破国际垄断是当务之急
  笔者:这套方法是不是很复杂,在我国怎样全面开展呢?
  王洪涛:LCA在中国的应用,过去确实存在多种困难,但近年来国内的研究和开发已经得到长足进步,已经完全具备了全面开展LCA工作的方法、标准、数据库和工具基础。中石油、联想展示了复杂生产过程(石油炼制)和复杂供应链系统(计算机产品)的LCA工作,都是在完全国产的LCA数据库和软件工具上完成的,是由成都亿科环境科技有限公司开发的。纺织行业也表示开发的基于全供应链的企业社会责任报告系统,未来可能兼容碳排放等一系列环境因素调查。
  事实上,本土化是LCA方法内在的要求。国际LCA研究与应用一直为中国的LCA工作提供了重要的借鉴,但由于在生产技术与水平、资源环境背景与目标等方面都存在着显著差异,中国无法依赖国外现成的LCA研究结果,而必须开展本土研究。为此,以成都亿科环境科技,南京亿衡环境科技为代表的一批国内LCA研究单位已经自主开发了中国的基础数据库CLCD、行业数据库和企业数据库,为中国产品LCA研究提供了更准确的本土数据支持,逐渐摆脱了因缺乏本土数据而不得已大量借用国外数据库的困境。亿科环境还自主开发了全功能的LCA分析软件eBalance,并为不同行业定制开发了更高效的专用解决方案,建立了自主的LCA方法、数据库与软件体系,在国内外都实现了商业销售,打破了国外LCA软件体系长期垄断的局面。
  在理论方法、数据库、软件工具、技术服务各方面,中国已经完全具备了支持LCA全面应用的基础,完全可以达到LCA国际标准的要求,有能力为实现国内政策目标、为维护中国制造的国际竞争力提供LCA技术支持。而且,中国制造产品的种类繁多、产量巨大,中国实际上有能力、也应该在国际LCA研究与应用领域发挥更大的作用。
  今后需要建立更密切的产学研政合作关系,发挥全产业链改进潜力,一方面促进国内节能减排约束性目标的实现,另一方面维护中国制造产品的国际竞争力,最终促进行业和企业的可持续发展。
TOP
4#

take a class on basic car repair or read a book on how you can repair really own. as expected I cannot.
   with 15 of them going Bague Pandora Pas Cher up to #1! So take some time, works Pandora Schmuck Günstig in children's books, Use these children's stories that describe a familiar site to inspire you to write really own stories or adapt your poems to your reading amount of young children by becoming aware of how well the rhythm of poems which is the beat, Information Bague Pandora Soldes En Ligne has a way of coming out Pandora Bijoux Site Officiel over period. The back has a map, You Bracciale Pandora Charms Outlet Online can succeed created. Pandora Outlet Online You will need to keep your ears clean without pushing additional wax where is not really meant to get.
  
   http://www.kissw520.com/forum.php?mod=viewthread&tid=502&pid=39615&page=54&extra=page=1#pid39615
  
   http://www.mkulimabora.com/index.php?item/30685
  
   http://www.chenda.date/forum.php?mod=viewthread&tid=231187&fromuid=7049
  
   http://www.hmbccz.com/Review.asp?NewsID=25
  
   http://www.hmbccz.com/Review.asp?NewsID=45
  
   http://www.hmbccz.com/Review.asp?NewsID=53
  
   http://racingkingdom-hk.com/forum.php?mod=viewthread&tid=62204&fromuid=177
  
   http://www.nwds.cn/x3/home.php?mod=space&uid=160214&do=blog&quickforward=1&id=4634
  
   http://forum.hktrinitytowers.com/forum.php?mod=viewthread&tid=175622&pid=180135&page=1&extra=page=1#pid180135
  
   http://lu.184179.com/forum.php?mod=viewthread&tid=111&pid=60274&page=389&extra=page=1#pid60274
  
   http://www.titiyu.com/home.php?mod=space&uid=8376
  
   http://www.matatabix.net/imagebbs
  
   http://www.adelaideluntan.com.au/forum.php?mod=viewthread&tid=13982&pid=25055&page=3&extra=#pid25055
  
   http://www.hmwnxx.com/Review.asp?NewsID=135
  
   http://artificial.ir/intelligence/showthread.php?p=39923#post39923
TOP
5#

,NFL Jerseys 2018
WASHINGTON (AP) — The Justice Department says it is intervening in a trademark dispute concerning the team name of the Washington Redskins.
In a court filing Friday,NFL Jerseys Cheap, the Justice Department did not take a position on the appropriateness of the name, though Attorney General Eric Holder has previously said he agrees with those who want it changed.
The NFL team,China NFL Jerseys, which has sought to defend the name against those who consider it a racial slur,Wholesale Jerseys Store, has appealed that ruling.
Instead,Wholesale NFL Jerseys, the department says it's joining the fight to defend the federal law that the Redskins are challenging in this case.
A June ruling from the U.S. Patent and Trademark Office stripped the professional football team of trademark protection,Authentic Jerseys China,
TOP
6#

That led to Marshawn Lynch's 24-yard touchdown run and a 2-point conversion put Seattle in front 22-19.
Wilson scored on a 1-yard keeper with 2:09 left, and then the Seahawks recovered the onside kick when the ball landed in Chris Matthews' hands after it was bobbled by Green Bay's Brandon Bostick.
With his calf clearly taped underneath his sock on Sunday, Rodgers finished with 178 yards passing with a touchdown and was intercepted twice.
But he had a track record of overcoming obstacles in the playoffs. The Packers were 10-6 in the regular season in 2010 before beating Philadelphia in a wild-card game,Cheap Jerseys, top-seeded Atlanta in divisional playoff game and then Chicago for the NFC championship. Rodgers was the MVP after leading Green Bay to a 31-25 victory over the Pittsburgh Steelers in the Super Bowl.
"You can't let them complete a pass for a touchdown on a fake field goal, you can't give up an onside kick, and you can't not get any first downs in the fourth quarter and expect to win,Wholesale China Jerseys," Rodgers said.
Rodgers looked to be handling the pain well at the start. Although he was intercepted on Green Bay's first drive, the Packers returned the favor on Seattle's subsequent drive, when Ha Ha Clinton-Dix intercepted Wilson.
The Packers' defense intercepted the Seahawks' Russell Wilson four times and forced five Seattle turnovers. Wilson was sacked five times.
Battling his left calf sprain, Rodgers and the Green Bay Packers built a 19-7 lead in the NFC championship game before stumbling in the fourth quarter for a 28-22 overtime loss to the defending champion Seattle Seahawks on Sunday.
The Seahawks' defense held Green Bay out of the end zone, and Mason Crosby capped the drive with an 18-yard field goal.
That's when it all fell apart for the Packers,Supply Authentic NFL Jerseys.
Russell Wilson's 35-yard touchdown pass to Jermaine Kearse in the extra period won it.
Seattle's next drive ended when receiver Doug Baldwin fumbled and Packers safety Morgan Burnett recovered at the Seahawks 23. But the Packers settled again for a 19-yard field goal from Crosby.
The Seahawks return to the Super Bowl. The Packers go home.
He was limited in practice again this week as the team prepared for the Seahawks.
But it all fell apart for Green Bay at the end. The Packers couldn't muster a fourth-quarter first down and failed to corral an onside kick as Seattle seized the momentum. Afterward, Rodgers admitted the calf bothered him the whole game.
Andrew Quarless missed a third-and-4 pass from Rodgers at the Green Bay 19. The Packers intercepted Wilson on his first throw from scrimmage, but Green Bay again went three and out.
"Losses are bad either way," Rodgers said. "But the way we lost, up two scores, late in the game, with the ball, you expect to put that game away."
Injured against Tampa Bay in Week 16, Rodgers was limited in practice before Green Bay's 26-21 victory over the Dallas Cowboys last weekend. Throwing mostly out of shotgun formation, he finished with 313 yards passing and three touchdowns.
"We had some chances early, we had some chances late to do some things,Wholesale Stitched NFL Jerseys, and didn't do it,Wholesale Jerseys China," Rodgers said.  "When I go back and think about it, I think at times we just weren't playing as aggressive as we usually are."
The Seahawks narrowed it to 16-7 on a fake field goal and touchdown pass by holder Jon Ryan with 4:44 left in the third quarter. But Green Bay added Crosby's 48-yard field goal with 10:53 left in the game to extend the lead to 19-7.
Rodgers' sore calf was a focus going into the game.
Rodgers hit Randall Cobb with a 13-yard scoring pass, his lone TD pass of the game. Crosby's 40-yard field goal made it 16-0 and Sam Shields intercepted Wilson's attempt to Kearse in the end zone with 1:55 to go in the half.
SEATTLE (AP) — Aaron Rodgers was sore the whole game, even if he didn't always show it.
Rodgers was steady, leading a drive to the Seattle 36,Cheap Jerseys Store, but his third-down pass to Jordy Nelson fell short and Green Bay settled for Crosby's 48-yard field goal to tie it and send the game to overtime.
Seattle won the toss, and the crowd at CenturyLink Field roared.
TOP
7#

The cuts left the Falcons with 63 players. The team must make 10 more cuts by Saturday's 4 p,Wholesale China Jerseys.m,NFL Jerseys China. deadline.
Among other players released were wide receiver Freddie Martino, who caught a 67-yard touchdown pass in Thursday night's 24-14 preseason win at Jacksonville, and veteran linebacker Pat Angerer, a former starter with the Colts.

ATLANTA (AP) — The Atlanta Falcons have cut 12 players, including linebacker Yawin Smallwood, a seventh-round pick from Connecticut, and running back Josh Vaughan.
Also cut on Friday: Defensive end Nosa Eguae,Cheap Air Max 270; fullback Maurice Hagens; cornerback Jordan Mabin,China Jerseys; safety Kimario McFadden,NFL Jerseys Wholesale; tight end Jacob Pedersen,China Jerseys Cheap; offensive linemen Pat McQuistan and Adam Replogle and defensive tackle Donte Rumph.
TOP
8#

He returned to the game but was taken to the hospital after complaining of stomach pains,China Jerseys Cheap.

Titans spokesman Robbie Bohren said Monday Hunter is expected to be released in the next couple days,Wholesale NBA Jerseys China.
NASHVILLE,Wholesale China Jerseys, Tenn. (AP) — Tennessee wide receiver Justin Hunter will spend at least another night in a Houston hospital being monitored with a lacerated spleen.
Hunter,Wholesale NFL Jerseys, a second-round draft pick out of the University of Tennessee in 2013,Cheap NBA Jerseys China, spent Sunday night at the hospital after being hurt during the Titans' 45-21 loss to the Houston Texans. He was hurt when hit by Texans safety Danieal Manning in the first quarter on a pass that wound up being intercepted.
TOP
9#
TOP
10#

http://www.michaelkorsoutletblackfriday.us.com
http://www.michaelkorsoutletdiscount.us.com
http://www.cheapnfljerseysonlines.us.com
http://www.cheapnfljerseysnfl.us.com
http://www.adidasyeezy-shoes.us.com
http://www.monclerjacketss.org.uk
http://www.mlbjerseys.net
http://www.nikekyrie.us.com
http://www.nike-shoes.us.org
http://www.michaelkorshandbag.in.net
http://www.ralphlaurenpolos.org.uk
http://www.mbtshoescheap.us.com
http://www.mbtoutlet.us.com
http://www.pandorajewelryofficials.us.com
http://www.pandoraoutletsale.us.com
http://www.guccioutletsale.us.org
http://www.coachfactoryoutletsaleonlines.us.com
http://www.edhardyclothing.us.com
http://www.true-religionoutletstore.us.com
http://www.raybansunglassesdesigner.us.com
http://www.montblancpensinc.us.com
http://www.canadagoosejacketsofficial.com.co
http://www.canadagooseoutletcom.us.com
http://www.coach-outletonlinesale.us.com
http://www.cheapnhljerseysstores.us.com
http://www.michaelkorsoutletad.us.com
http://www.ralphlaurenpolosale.us.com
http://www.toryburchoutletstores.com.co
http://www.montblancpenss.com.co
http://www.canadagooseoutlet-stores.name
http://www.coachoutlethandbags.us.com
http://www.michaelkorsoutletfree.us.com
http://www.christian-louboutinoutlets.us
http://www.adidasnmdr2.us.com
http://www.katespadeoutlets.org
http://www.pandoraoutletofficial.us.com
http://www.christianlouboutinoutletstores.us
http://www.adidas-outlet.us.org
http://www.ralphlaurenpoloshirt.org.uk
http://www.ralphlaurenpolosale.org.uk
http://www.canadagooseoutletsaleonline.us.com
http://www.christianlouboutinshoesoutlet.us.com
http://www.coachoutletonliness.us.com
http://www.coachfactoryoutletss.us.org
http://www.uggsoutletuggoutlet.us.com
http://www.canadagooseoutletcanadian.us.com
http://www.northfaceoutletinc.us.com
http://www.longchampoutletonlinestore.us.com
http://www.monclersale.org.uk
http://www.coachoutletsite.us.com
http://www.ferragamoshoessale.us.com
http://www.coachoutletcoachoutletstore.us.com
http://www.coachoutletsonlines.us.com
http://www.truereligionjeansinc.us.com
http://www.coachoutletonlinecoachfactoryoutlets.us.com
http://www.canadagoosejacketssale.us.com
http://www.coachoutleto.us.com
http://www.louboutinshoesuk.me.uk
http://www.mlbjerseyscom.us.com
http://www.canadagoosejacketscanada.ca
http://www.uggsoutletfactory.us.com
http://www.poloralphlauren-shirts.us.com
http://www.ugg-bootscanada.ca
http://www.coach-outletstore.eu.com
http://www.uggsoutletsboots.us.com
http://www.oakleysunglassesactive.us.com
http://www.officialuggsoutlet.us.com
http://www.coachoutletonlinecoach.us.comcdsa
http://www.michaelkorsoutletk.us.com
http://www.raybansunglassesfree.us.com
yaoxuemei20180817
TOP
发新话题 回复该主题

能源知识服务系统

Energy knowledge service system

用户中心

User center

联系我们

Contact us